Rust’s unsafe pointer types need an overhaul

Rust’s unsafe pointer types need an overhaul

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Aria Beingessner

March 19th, 2022

I think about unsafe pointers in Rust a lot.

I literally wrote the book on unsafe Rust. And the book on pointers in Rust. And redesigned the Rust’s pointer APIs. And designed the standard library’s abstraction for unsafe heap-allocated buffers. And maintain the alternative Vec layout.

I think about unsafe pointers in Rust a lot, and I absolutely hate them.

Don’t get me wrong, I think all of the above work has made them better but they are still deeply flawed. Actually they’ve gotten a lot worse. Not because the APIs have changed, but because when I was working on this stuff we had too naive of an understanding of how pointers should work. Others have done a lot of great work to expand this understanding, and now the flaws are all the more glaring.

This article is broken up into 3 parts: conceptual background, problems with the current design, and proposed solutions.

This section can be skipped entirely if you know everything about computers.

Aliasing is a very important concept in compilers and language semantics. At a high-level, it is the study of the observability of modifications to memory. We call it aliasing because the problem is very easy until you can refer to a piece of memory in more than one way. Pointers are just nicknames for memory.

The primary function of alias analysis is as a model for when the compiler can semantically cache memory accesses. This can either mean assuming a value in memory hasn’t been modified or assuming a write to memory isn’t necessary. This is exceptionally important because essentially all program state is semantically in memory. It is literally impossible for a general purpose programming language that does anything on the behalf of the programmer to allow arbitrary reads and writes to memory.

As a hopefully extremely obvious example that we can all agree on, the compiler should be able to assume that the following program will pass 1 to println!:

let mut x = 0;
let mut y = 1;

x = 2;


When we talk about alias analysis we usually jump immediately to pointers because that’s the hard part but like, the fact that this has deterministic behaviour is part of your aliasing model! Variables are semantically unaliased until you actually take a reference to them!

This is actually a foundational assumption for putting things in registers, because putting something in a register is caching it. If a compiler can’t decide it’s ok to put values in general purpose registers or spill them to the stack, it’s an assembler at best. We would like to build languages that are higher-level than an assembler!

This is all well and good until we introduce pointers and have to start answering harder questions. For instance, in the following function, can we assume that input and output refer to different regions of memory?

fn compute(input: &u32, output: &mut u32) {
    if *input > 10 {
        *output = 1;
    if *input > 5 {
        *output *= 2;

If we can, then the compiler is free to rewrite it as follows:

fn compute(input: &u32, output: &mut u32) {
    let cached_input = *input; 
    if cached_input > 10 {
        *output = 2;
    } else if cached_input > 5 {
        *output *= 2;

If they do point to the same memory, then the write *output=1 and the read *input> 5 would alias. When we perform (potentially) aliasing accesses, the compiler has to conservatively load and store from memory as much as the source code implies.

Now it’s often clumsy to talk about accesses aliasing, so we usually talk about pointers aliasing as a shorthand. So one would reasonably say that input and output are aliased. The reason that the actual model is in terms of accesses and not pointers is because that’s the thing that we care about. We don’t actually care if you pass in two pointers that alias but only use one. Similarly we don’t actually care if two pointers alias but are only used for reads – one read can’t observably effect the other read (this assumption is why memory mapped hardware has to use volatile)

This is also why Rust has such a distinct schism between “unique mutable” references (&mut) and “shared immutable” references (&). It’s fine to make as many copies as you want of pointers that have readonly access, but if you want to actually mutate some memory it’s really important that it isn’t aliased!

(You may notice that this is a simplified model full of lies, if you would like less lies, read my extremely detailed discussion of Stacked Borrows.)

Now with all that said, I will use the following shorthands:

  • memory is anonymous if the programmer cannot refer to it by name or pointer.
  • memory is unaliased if there is currently only one way to refer to it.

Anonymous values are in some sense “completely under the control of the compiler” and can therefore be freely assumed to be unaliased and trusted/modified by the compiler. Unaliased memory cannot be “randomly” modified by something seemingly “unrelated” (we’ll get to what that means in the next section).

Languages can have stricter or weaker aliasing models. A stricter model allows the compiler to do more optimizations but puts heavier restrictions on what the programmer is allowed to do within the confines of the language. Here are some common rules, in vaguely increasing strictness:

  • Callee-saved values pushed to the stack are anonymous (return pointer, frame pointer).
  • “Scratch” values the compiler spills to the stack are anonymous.
  • A newly declared variable is unaliased until a reference is taken to it.
  • The memory returned by malloc is unaliased.
  • Fields of a struct do not alias eachother (bitfields are made of sadness).
  • Padding bytes are vaguely anonymous (messy because of memcpy/memset/unions/punning).
  • Immutable variables are functionally unaliased in that they can never change values.
  • In Rust, &mut is unaliased (Stacked Borrows).
  • In C(++), T* and U* cannot alias if T!=U and neither is char (Strict Aliasing).

(I cannot emphasize enough how shorthanded all of this is, the devil is extremely in the details and formally specifying these things in this subject of untold numbers of PhD theses. I am not trying to write a PhD thesis right now. Unless you literally work on a C/C++ Standard Committee or are named Ralf Jung I will not be accepting your Umm Actually’s on these definitions and terms.)

1.2 Alias Analysis and Pointer Provenance

Ok so all of that aliasing stuff is all well and good, but as soon as you take a pointer to something, or copy a pointer, or offset a pointer… that all goes out the window, right? Like you have to assume anything can be aliased by anything else?

No! Aliasing rules are some of the most foundational parts of the language’s semantics and optimizations. If you run afoul of the language’s aliasing rules you have Undefined Behaviour and the miscompilations can be extremely brutal!

But yes, once you start faffing around with pointers things get a lot harder for the compiler, memory model, and programmer. To make aliasing a useful notion once pointers start getting thrown around, memory models very quickly find the need to define two concepts:

  • Allocations
  • Pointer Provenance

Allocations abstractly describe things like individual variables and the heap allocations. A freshly created allocation (variable decl, malloc) is always brought into the world unaliased and therefore acts like a sandbox with One True Name – there is no way to access the memory in the sandbox except through the One True Name (that isn’t Undefined Behaviour).

Pointer Provenance describes the way “permission to access an allocation’s sandbox” can be delegated from the One True Name by deriving a new pointer from it or something derived from it. The process of tracking this “chain of custody” from the One True Name to all of its derived pointers is Pointer Provenance.

From a formal memory model perspective, all accesses to an allocation must have provenance tracking back to that allocation. If pointer provenance isn’t satisfied, then that means the programmer broke out of the sandbox or pulled a pointer from the aether that happened to point into some random sandbox. Either way, everything is chaos and nothing makes sense anymore if that’s allowed.

From a compiler optimization perspective, tracking provenance allows the compiler to prove that two accesses don’t alias. If it ever loses track of provenance (i.e. if a pointer is passed to an opaque function) then it just conservatively assumes they do alias. But if the compiler neverloses track of all the derived pointers to an allocation, it can have perfect aliasing information and do Some Good Codegen.

This is the fundamental trick compilers apply to all basically impossible problems: have a simple analysis that can answer your query with “YES”, “NO”, or “MAYBE” and then convert “MAYBE” to “YES” or “NO” based on whichever one is safer. Do these two accesses MAYBE alias? Then YES they alias. Problem Solved.

But once you get low-level enough the compiler needs you to help it out and actually follow some dang rules. This is why the llvm GetElementPointer (GEP) instruction which computes a pointer offset, is almost always emitted by compilers with the inbounds keyword. The inbounds keyword is basically “I promise this offset won’t break the pointer out of its allocation sandbox and completely trash aliasing and provenance”. Which like, yeah all of your pointer offsets should follow that rule!

Let’s go up a level and look at Rust: any time you do (*ptr).my_field the compiler will emit GEP inbounds. Have you ever wondered why the documentation for ptr::offset and friends is so weird and complicated? Because they lower to GEP inbounds and need to follow its rules! ptr::wrapping_offset is just GEP without the inbounds. And even wrapping_offset isn’t actually allowed to break provenance:

Compared to offset, this method basically delays the requirement of staying within the same allocated object: offset is immediate Undefined Behavior when crossing object boundaries; wrapping_offset produces a pointer but still leads to Undefined Behavior if a pointer is dereferenced when it is out-of-bounds of the object it is attached to

Mea culpa, I spent years calling CHERI completely unshippable vaporware! I was pretty confident, but I’ll eat my hat because ARM Morello actually built and shipped a full CHERI-based CPU. Congratulations to everyone who worked on it!

So what is CHERI? I’m not going to get into the nitty-gritty details but roughly speaking it’s a 128-bit architecture. Well actually it’s 129-bit. Well actually it’s 64-bit. Sorry what?

Ok so the whole Idea with CHERI is that it actually reifies and implements the “sandboxing” model from the previous section. Every pointer is tagged with extra metadata that the hardware maintains and validates. If you ever break out of your sandbox the hardware will catch it and the OS will presumably kill your process.

I don’t know the full details of the encoding or metadata, but the part we care about is that each pointer contains a compressed slice (range of memory) that it is allowed to point into as well as the actual address that it points to. The slice is that pointer’s sandbox, and all pointers derived from it inherit that sandbox (or less). Whenever you access some memory, the hardware just checks that the pointer is still inside its sandbox.

This metadata isn’t cheap: pointers in CHERI are 128-bits wide, but the effective address space is still at most 64-bit (I don’t know the exact upper bound, all that matters is that addresses fit in 64-bit). Now 128-bit is really bloated, so in C(++) CHERI actually gets help from our old nemesis The Wobbly C Interger Hierarchy.

C makes a distinction between intptr_t (“a pointer-sized integer”) and ptrdiff_t/size_t (“offset-sized integers”). Under CHERI, intptr_t is 128-bit and ptrdiff_t/size_t are 64-bit. It can do this because the address space is still only 64-bit, so anything that refers to offsets or sizes can still be 64-bit.

Ok so you might have two burning questions at this point: how on earth can this possible work if I can just scribble over a pointer and corrupt its metadata, and why did you say it’s actually 129-bit. As it turns out, those are the same question!

I find the best way to conceptualize this is to think of it like ECC (Error Correction Code) RAM. In ECC RAM, each RAM stick actually has more physically memory than it claims, because it’s transparently using that extra memory to correct or detect random bitflips. So there’s all this extra memory somewhere but as far as a compiler or programmer are concerned, the memory looks perfectly normal and doesn’t have any weird extra bits.

CHERI does the same thing, but the extra 129th bit the hardware is hiding from you is a “metadata is valid” bit. You see, to properly manipulate pointers in CHERI you need to access the memory/registers containing a pointer with specific instructions for that task. If you try to manipulate them some other way (say by memcopying random bytes over it), the hardware will disable the “metadata is valid” bit. Then if you try to use the pointer as a pointer, the hardware will see your metadata can’t be trusted and fault/kill your process.

It’s friggin’ neato!

(A lot of the issues we’ll see with integrating Rust with CHERI will actually look a lot like issues with segmented architectures, but I have never used those so I would just be vaguely gesturing at them and handwaving. Just keep in mind that whenever I refer to CHERI, a similar argument also probably applies to segmenting. So if you care about segmented architectures, you might care about CHERI too!)

Now let’s see how Rust’s current unsafe pointer APIs cause problems for all the background we’ve seen above.

Rust currently says this code is neato and fine:

let mut addr = my_ptr as usize;
addr = addr & !0x1; 
let new_ptr = addr as *mut T;
*new_ptr += 10;

This is some pretty bog-standard code for messing with tagged pointers, what’s wrong with that?

Think about the background we just discussed. Think about Pointer Provenance. Think about CHERI.


For this to possibly work with Pointer Provenance and Alias Analysis, that stuff must pervasively infect all integers on the assumption that they might be pointers. This is a huge pain in the neck for people who are trying to actually formally define Rust’s memory model, and for people who are trying to build sanitizers for Rust that catch UB. (And I assure you it’s just as much a headache for all the LLVM and C(++) people too).

For this to possibly work with CHERI we need to make usize 128-bit (even though the address space is 64-bit) and always manipulate it with “pointer instructions” on the assumption that it might be a pointer in the vein of intptr_t. Yes folks have tried running Rust under CHERI and that’s exactly what they had to do. It was, Not Good.

Unfortunately for CHERI, Rust actually defines usize to be the same size as a pointer, even though its primary role is to be an offset/size. This is a very reasonable assumption for mainstream platforms, but it runs afoul of CHERI (and segmented architectures)!

If you don’t make usize 128-bit and just try to make it the 64-bit “address” portion, then usize as *mut T is a completely incoherent operation. Promoting an integer to a pointer (or what CHERI calls a capability) requires adding metadata to it. What metadata? What range is this random address possibly valid for? There is literally no way to answer that question!

Now you might be thinking “ok but pointer tagging is a super fundamental thing, are you saying we can’t do that anymore?”. Nope! You can totally still do tagging tricks, but you need to be a bit more careful about it. This is why CHERI actually introduces a special operation void* cheri_address_set(void* capability, vaddr_t address) which takes a valid pointer and an address, and creates a new pointer with the same metadata and that address. That will be useful to remember!

Hey! That operation also looks really useful for provenance, doesn’t it? By associating out int-to-ptr operation with an existing pointer we are reestablishing the provenance chain of custody! The new pointer is derived from the old one, and compilers and memory-models can be happy! HMMMM…

In the grand old days of Rust 1.0, we were pretty optimistic about how fast-and-loose we could be with raw pointers. Well, ok we were actually pretty rigorous about pointers by most people’s standards. We largely enforced GEP inbounds semantics, alignment, carved out how to work with ZSTs, enforce that allocations can’t be larger than isize::MAX, etc.

But what we played really fast and loose on was aliasing and validity. In Ye Olde conception of Rust, references were kinda just conveniences. Like yes they asserted many things, but not in a compiler optimization kinda way. Just in a “this API guarantees this” kinda way. We all vaguely knew we wanted the optimization-y stuff but no one had spent the energy to work that out.

These days, between unsafe-code-guidelines, miri and stacked borrows, a lot of us have now put a lot of thought into this. Miri is especially useful because it lets us “kick the tires” on actual code and check if the semantics we’re interested in are actually obeyed by real unsafe Rust code.

They Weren’t! This is why the unsafe queue in Learn Rust With Entirely Too Many Linked Lists abruptly comes to a halt for a 4000 word delve into miri and stacked borrows! Even something as boring as a linked queue in Ye Olde Rust had confusing and busted semantics.

(For real read that chapter if you want to understand stacked borrows, I’m not rehashing it here.)

The fundamental issue is that under our modern understanding of Rust, even creating a reference is making an extremely strong validity assertion and has side-effects on the “borrow stack” which in turn changes which references are considered to invalidate or not. For a reference to T this potentially includes:

  • The reference is aligned
  • The reference is non-null
  • The pointed-to-memory is allocated and has at least size_of::() bytes.
  • If T has invalid values, the pointed-to-memory does not contain one.

The upshot of all of this is that generally you should avoid mixing references and unsafe pointers. Unsafe code should generally provide a safe referency-interface at its API boundary, and then internally drop the references and try to stay in unsafe pointer land. This way you minimize the strong assertions you make about your sketchy low-level data structures’ memory.

Ok, simple enough, right?

2.3 Offsets And Places Are A Mess

So you’re trying to be responsible and stay in unsafe pointer land and it’s time to offset a pointer. That’s easy, we have ptr::offset/add/sub for that! Let’s just offset to this struct’s field… uh… wait what’s that field’s offset?

Oh Rust just, doesn’t tell me that huh? Well maybe you can do something like

Oh no wait that made a reference. Yes even if you immediately cast it to a raw pointer. How the heck do you take an address without creating a reference? Also is it actually fine for me to use a reference to initialize uninit memory? Sort of, sometimes.

This is a big confusing mess. For a long time we tried to have some kind of “5-second rule” thing where if you converted the reference to a raw pointer “fast enough” then it’s OK but that was pretty clearly untenable for a formal model. So folks came up with a proper RFC for raw addresses and for a long time we’ve had a hacky addr_of macro that lets you do this:

…yeah I hate it too.

And even that didn’t put the nail in the coffin. There was recently a post by a very experienced rust developer that basically amounted to confused frustration at the current state of affairs with doing this stuff with uninitialized memory. Meanwhile the actual thing proposed in the RFC has seemingly been stalled out for years because the Experts on this stuff are themselves confused by the corner-cases of addr_of.

And to make it even worse, addr_of also makes it really hard to do a thing people still want which is static offsetof.

It is my assertion that a lot of this boils down to two facts:

  • Dereferencing Pointers Is Fake Nonsense
  • Places Are Extremely Confusing Magic (Rust’s term for lvalues)

Like if we think about what “dereferencing” a pointer is… it’s actually nothing? Like dereferencing a pointer doesn’t actually do a thing. It puts you in “place expression” mode and lets you specify an offset to subfields/indices of the pointee, and then what actually happens is only specified at the end. e.g.

(*ptr).field1.field2[idx3].field4 = 5;  

This is certainly familiar syntax but it’s genuinely also kind of magical in the exact same way autoderef is in Rust. That is to say, it makes a kind of sense and honestly you just don’t need to think about the fact that it’s happening in safe Rust code because you know the compiler has your back and will help out if anything goes wrong. But in unsafe Rust code? This stuff is way too fuzzy. I literally can’t tell if the indexing is into a slice or an inline array, or if any of those .s is dereferencing stuff implicitly.

As I said before, when you’re doing unsafe pointer stuff you want to stay in that mode. That is currently impossible with this place-expression design, because as soon as you deref you’re kinda in a weird twilight between safe and unsafe!

Alright and now here is where I start going off the rails and proposing wild overhauls to Rust with almost no regard for “parsing”.

3.1 Distinguish Pointers And Addresses

The connection between usize and pointers needs to be completely overhauled, and I would take a chainsaw to it (using proper editions and deprecation periods).

Here’s the high level look at our tasteful chainsawing:

  • Define a distinction between a pointer and an address
  • Redefine usizes as address-sized, which is
  • Define ptr.addr() -> usize and ptr.with_addr(usize) -> ptr methods
  • Deprecate usize as ptr and ptr as usize

First off, those definitions. A pointer is still a pointer as we know it, but we now acknowledge that it points into a specific address space. A pointer also contains an address which is conceptually an offset into this address space. (For all major architectures and CHERI there is only one address space as far as I’m concerned, but it’s potentially worth opening the door for properly talking about pointers in segmented architectures here.)

A usize is large enough to contain all addresses for all address spaces on that platform. For major architectures, that means a usize is still pointer-sized. For CHERI, that means usize can (and should) be a u64 and is equivalent to CHERI’s vaddr_t. (Again hopefully this generic definition is useful for segmenting but I’m not going to pretend I know that.)

As a result, someone writing maximally portable Rust must now replace their assumptions:


is now:

size_of::() ()

There should probably be a cfg(target_address_size_is_pointer_size) or something to allow people to specify software is incompatible with weird platforms where the strict equality doesn’t hold.

Next off, replacing casts with methods. The following new methods would be added:

implT: ?Sized> *mut T {
    fn addr(self) -> usize;

    fn with_addr(self, addr: usize) -> Self;

Deprecating the casts may seem extreme, but as far as I’m concerned this is the exact same situation as when we deprecated mem::uninitialized. The design of these casts is fundamentally broken under both Pointer Provenance and CHERI. Everyone needs to use a better design that actually has a coherent meaning.

Now technically you could keep ptr as usize but I think it’s better to replace both for several reasons:

  • Getting a deprecation warning for both sides of the cast raises a big red flag to everyone doing anything even vaguely dubious with a usize that they have some thinking to do.
  • You can’t hang documentation off of casts. As I hope this post demonstrates, int-ptr stuff is extremely subtle and hairy, and deserves a lot of detailed documentation!
  • ptr as usize is horribly clunky in practice so destroying it is honestly a mercy.
  • Straight-up symmetry/aesthetics. It’s weird to only have one!

As the documentation notes, the new with_addr method serves several roles:

  • It lets us reconstitute what segment the address goes to (hopefully)
  • It lets us reconstitute provenance for the purposes of memory models / alias analysis
  • It lets us reconstitute metadata for the purposes of CHERI (but this is just a reification of provenance)

…that it! It just fixes the issue. That’s all you need to fix provenance and CHERI! (And maybe also support segmenting.)

(In reality there might need to be some more special APIs added to satisfy the existing Jank uses of ptr-int conversions, but that really needs to be shaken out on and with the community.)

Unclear detail: is get_addr/with_addr also necessary/useful for ARMv8.3 Pointer Authentication? This is a technology that Apple ships and involves some pointers getting signed/obfuscated to make it a bit harder to do memory-safety exploits. I haven’t looked into it enough to know what level of abstraction this “leaks” into. I just know about it because it shows up in minidumps and we have to hackily try to strip it out.

3.2 Fixing Places and Offsets

Ok here’s a two-part combo of syntactic niceties to make it a lot easier to work with unsafe pointers.

Hey Did You Know Rust Never Actually Removed Tilde (~) From The Syntax?

Did you also know that ~ was one of the things that originally drew me to messing around with Rust back in like 2014, and that I was very sad to learn that it was already being removed?

Well today I get my justice. Today I return ~ to its position of glory that is deserved.

I am almost certain that I’m going to run afoul of parser ambiguities somewhere here but hey this isn’t a real RFC and I get to make the rules. Maybe it works fine. Maybe it can be fixed in an edition. Let’s find out!

Here is my grand vision that will solve all of Rust’s woes around “staying in unsafe pointer mode” and just generally dealing with offsets: If you write ~ instead of . it always does a raw pointer offset.

That’s it. Ok that’s not just it but that’s basically the whole idea. Let’s start with some examples:

struct MyType {
    field1: bool,
    field2: Vec,
    field3: [u32; 4],

let init = unsafe {
    let mut uninit = MaybeUninit::MyType>::uninit();
    let ptr = uninit.as_mut_ptr();



unsafe {
    const MY_FIELD_OFFSET: usize = MyType~field1~[2];
    let mut uninit = MaybeUninit::MyType>::uninit();
    let ptr = uninit.as_mut_ptr() as *mut u8;

    let field_ptr = ptr.wrapping_add(MY_FIELD_OFFSET) as *mut u32;

Yes ~[idx] is a bit wonky but it’s clear and concise and that’s the most important thing. Note that this is what you would have to do in today’s Rust

let init = unsafe {
    let mut uninit = MaybeUninit::MyType>::uninit();
    let ptr = uninit.as_mut_ptr();



Or if you’re being clever and trying to leverage the fact that POD types can be initialized without write:

let init = unsafe {
    let mut uninit = MaybeUninit::MyType>::uninit();
    let ptr = uninit.as_mut_ptr();

    (*ptr).field1 = true;
    (*ptr).field3[0] = 7;
    (*ptr).field3[1] = 2;
    (*ptr).field3[2] = 12;
    (*ptr).field3[3] = 88;


What I really like about the ~ version is that:

  • It’s all postfix just like we learned is Very Good And Nice with .await! Just look at how nasty addr_of!((*ptr).field2).write(vec![]) is!

  • Because you stay in raw-pointer mode, it’s much less painful to reach for things like the read and write methods. This makes it just as easy to do more complicated things like read_volatile and doesn’t encourage you to be “clever” and lean on the fact that things happen to be POD. All writes is a very nice kind of mindlessly right.

  • You never have to worry about accidentally tripping over autoderef or any other thing that is nice for safe code but a huge hazard for unsafe code.

I am less passionate about the const offsetof stuff but it seems like it could be made to work and I know people really want that stuff.

Additional notes:

  • It should propagate *const vs *mut
  • I don’t know if it makes sense or is a good idea but maybe you could use ~ on actual references and non-references (int, struct, array, tuple…) and not just raw pointers?
    • If so, it may be desirable to support val~self as a nicer postfix way to write &mut val as *mut _ but this is messy if you support both references and non-references since that would be potentially ambiguous as to whether you want a raw-pointer-to-ref or just raw-pointer.

This is the least well-formed idea in here, but as long as we’re cleaning up raw pointers with nice and clean postfix syntax it would be really nice if we also had postfix deref. Note that because of the whole “creating a reference does magic assertions” thing you can’t provide something like a deref(self) -> &T method that actually has the same semantics as *ptr! Dereferencing raw pointers must have first-class syntax.

Consider for instance trying to access some multiply-indirected value.



With offset syntax:


With offset syntax and reads (remember, we’re staying in pointer mode, so is loading ptr2 from memory, so we can actually keep just using ~ syntax):

With postfix deref:



(I think I independently came up with this .* syntax but I was very happy to learn that Zig actually has it, and ptr.* +=1 is valid Zig syntax!)

The ambiguity issue with .* in Rust is that 1. is a valid float literal, so stuff like 1. * 1. is valid syntax and dangerously close to 1.*.1. I certainly can imagine nasty ambiguities!

One nice thing about the ~ syntax is that because unary * already binds pretty weakly (which is why we need to do (*ptr).field), if you only need to do one deref, it’s as clean as using normal references:

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